Approximately 10,000 years ago Paleo-Indians arrive in Southwest United States from Asia via the Bering Strait Bridge.
1542 - Juan Cabrillo explored the California Coast
1769 - Father Serra founds the first California mission in San Diego. there were about 310,000 Native Americans in California
1820 - Mexico declared independence from Spain and California became a territory in Mexico
1834 - Mexico secularized and/or dismantled the missions. The Native Americans were dispersed to urban areas where they were cheap labor or worked on the ranchos
1846 - The United States declared war on Mexico. Often known as the Mexican-American War
1848 - The treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was signed, making California an American territory
1849 - The Gold Rush begins. Native Americans were treated as hostiles by the Forty-niners and actively mistreated and killed
1850 - California became a state
1850 - California state legislature passed an act to allow indenturing of the Native Americans
1852 - The Calfornian Indian Service was established to start the reservation system. Several tribes such as the Hupa and Modocs resisted and fought to keep their land with varying amount of success
1870's - Ghost Dance religious movement attracts many Native Americans
1880's - Boarding schools established. Native Americans saw this as an attack on their language and society
1900 - There were around 20,000 Native Americans left, a 90% drop from when the missionaries arrived
1924 - All Native Americans born in the United States were granted citizenship
1964 - The American Indian Historical Society was started. They advocated better conditions and tried to change textbooks in Calfornia to give a clearer and less distorted account of their Native American History
1969 - The Indians of All Tribes occupied Alcatraz Island for two years to protest Native American treatment
Source: The First Americans: Calfiornia Indians by C.L. Keyworth, 1991.
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American History Online
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Issues & Controversies in American History
California Native Americans
General NON FICTION books about Native Americans